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Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz. Following the war, the British Empire experienced rapid decolonisation , and there was a speeding up of technological innovations; automobiles became the primary means of transport and Frank Whittle 's development of the jet engine led to wider air travel.
The UK's NHS provided publicly funded health care to all UK permanent residents free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation.
Combined, these changes prompted the reform of local government in England in the midth century. Since the 20th century there has been significant population movement to England, mostly from other parts of the British Isles , but also from the Commonwealth , particularly the Indian subcontinent.
Since the late 20th century the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system.
Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom , although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments.
Since devolution , in which other countries of the United Kingdom — Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England.
Originally it was planned that various regions of England would be devolved, but following the proposal's rejection by the North East in a referendum , this has not been carried out.
One major issue is the West Lothian question , in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters.
The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law  legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries  and the United States except Louisiana.
Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union , as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland.
The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent — stare decisis — to the facts before them.
It was created in after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords.
The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government.
These were created in as Government Offices , used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in the regional government offices were abolished.
After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight.
London accepted in the London Assembly was created two years later. However, when the proposal was rejected by the North East England devolution referendum in the North East, further referendums were cancelled.
Below the regional level, all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties. There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county councils.
Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council.
They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas. The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities.
Greater London has a different system for local government, with 32 London boroughs , plus the City of London covering a small area at the core governed by the City of London Corporation.
Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly.
It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom: to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. England is closer than any other part of mainland Britain to the European continent.
Most of England's landscape consists of low hills and plains, with upland and mountainous terrain in the north and west of the country.
The northern uplands include the Pennines , a chain of uplands dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills , straddling the border between England and Scotland.
The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire.
The Pennine landscape is high moorland in upland areas, indented by fertile valleys of the region's rivers. They contain two national parks , the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District.
In the West Country , Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include upland moorland supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate ; both are national parks.
The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills , Chiltern Hills , North and South Downs ; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover.
The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast , while July is normally the warmest month. Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October.
Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean , its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream.
The fauna of England is similar to that of other areas in the British Isles with a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate life in a diverse range of habitats.
National nature reserves in England are designated by Natural England as key places for wildlife and natural features in England. They were established to protect the most significant areas of habitat and of geological formations.
NNRs are managed on behalf of the nation, many by Natural England themselves, but also by non-governmental organisations, including the members of The Wildlife Trusts partnership, the National Trust , and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.
There are NNRs in England covering square kilometres square miles. Often they contain rare species or nationally important species of plants and animals.
England has a temperate oceanic climate in most areas, lacking extremes of cold or heat, but does have a few small areas of subarctic and warmer areas in the South West.
Towards the North of England the climate becomes colder and most of England's mountains and high hills are located here and have a major impact on the climate and thus the local fauna of the areas.
Deciduous woodlands are common across all of England and provide a great habitat for much of England's wildlife, but these give way in northern and upland areas of England to coniferous forests mainly plantations which also benefit certain forms of wildlife.
The fauna of England has to cope with varying temperatures and conditions, although not extreme they do pose potential challenges and adaptational measures.
English fauna has however had to cope with industrialisation, human population densities amongst the highest in Europe and intensive farming , but as England is a developed nation, wildlife and the countryside have entered the English mindset more and the country is very conscientious about preserving its wildlife, environment and countryside.
Grey squirrels introduced from eastern America have forced the decline of the native red squirrel due to competition. Red squirrels are now confined to upland and coniferous-forested areas of England, mainly in the north, south west and Isle of Wight.
England's climate is very suitable for lagomorphs and the country has rabbits and brown hares which were introduced in Roman times. The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England  and one of the busiest cities in the world.
It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself.
While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham , Sheffield , Manchester, Liverpool , Leeds , Newcastle , Bradford , Nottingham , population size is not a prerequisite for city status.
England is a leader in the chemical  and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace , the arms industry , and the manufacturing side of the software industry.
Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since it has been a state-owned institution.
The government has devolved responsibility to the bank's Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates.
England is highly industrialised, but since the s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy.
The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals , cars although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover , Lotus , Jaguar and Bentley , crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm , aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.
It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter — the world's largest single defence project — for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system.
It also manufactures the Hawk , the world's most successful jet training aircraft. Rolls-Royce PLC is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer.
Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30, engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors.
With a workforce of over 12, people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK.
Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry.
The company builds the buses — the underlying structure onto which the payload and propulsion systems are built — for most of the European Space Agency 's spacecraft, as well as commercial satellites.
The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellite Technology , is also part of Astrium.
England is one of the world's leading fishing nations. Its fleets bring home fish of every kind, ranging from sole to herring.
Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins , the first secretary of the Royal Society , in As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution , England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel , best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway , a series of famous steamships , and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.
With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton business partner of James Watt is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history.
Inventions and discoveries of the English include: the jet engine , the first industrial spinning machine , the first computer and the first modern computer , the World Wide Web along with HTML , the first successful human blood transfusion , the motorised vacuum cleaner ,  the lawn mower , the seat belt , the hovercraft , the electric motor , steam engines , and theories such as the Darwinian theory of evolution and atomic theory.
Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation , Newtonian mechanics , and calculus , and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity.
Other inventions include the iron plate railway, the thermosiphon , tarmac , the rubber band , the mousetrap , "cat's eye" road marker , joint development of the light bulb , steam locomotives , the modern seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in precision engineering.
The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. England has a dense and modern transportation infrastructure.
There are many motorways in England , and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road , which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle  much of this section is motorway and onward to the Scottish border.
The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England. National Cycle Route offers cycling routes nationally.
Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: passenger railways originated in England in There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge.
These lines are mostly standard gauge single , double or quadruple track though there are also a few narrow gauge lines. There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel , which was completed in England has extensive domestic and international aviation links.
The largest airport is Heathrow , which is the world's busiest airport measured by number of international passengers.
By sea there is ferry transport, both local and international, including from Liverpool to Ireland and the Isle of Man, and Hull to the Netherlands and Belgium.
The River Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury in the Thames Estuary , one of the United Kingdom's three major ports.
Energy use in the United Kingdom stood at 2, TWh Successive UK governments have outlined numerous commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
Notably, the UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy , and wind power production is its fastest growing supply.
Government commitments to reduce emissions are occurring against a backdrop of economic crisis across Europe. UK government energy policy aims to play a key role in limiting greenhouse gas emissions , whilst meeting energy demand.
Shifting availabilities of resources and development of technologies also change the country's energy mix through changes in costs.
In , the United Kingdom was ranked 6th in the World on the Environmental Performance Index ,  which measures how well a country carries through environmental policy.
English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England.
It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The northernmost point of the Roman Empire, Hadrian's Wall , is the largest Roman artefact anywhere: it runs for a total of 73 miles in northern England.
London is one of the world's most visited cities, regularly taking the top five most visited cities in Europe. It is largely considered a global centre of the arts and culture.
Entry to most state-supported museums and galleries is free unlike in other countries. National Health England NHS England is the publicly funded healthcare system responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country.
It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report , prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge.
When purchasing drugs, the NHS has significant market power that, based on its own assessment of the fair value of the drugs, influences the global price, typically keeping prices lower.
The average life expectancy of people in England is The English people are a British people. In , when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million.
England contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people , recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling.
During the English Renaissance , many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. Thanks in large part to the British Empire , the English language is the world's unofficial lingua franca.
English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity , and includes language schooling , tourism spending, and publishing. There is no legislation mandating an official language for England,  but English is the only language used for official business.
Despite the country's relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents , and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country.
As well as English, England has two other indigenous languages , Cornish and Welsh. Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived,   and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.
When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts and , many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border.
Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century,  and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not later.
State schools teach students a second language or third language from the ages of seven, usually French, German, Spanish, Latin, Greek.
However, following the census data released by the Office for National Statistics , figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English.
In the census, The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. It forms part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic worldwide head.
Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation , the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.
A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley.
The patron saint of England is Saint George ; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination.
There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since Especially since the s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration.
A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions , Druidry , and Heathenry.
According to the UK Census , there are roughly 53, people who identify as Pagan in England, [nb 5] and 3, in Wales , [nb 5] including 11, Wiccans in England and in Wales.
These figures are slightly lower than the combined figures for England and Wales as Wales has a higher level of irreligion than England. The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education.
Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school.
Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and Schools may choose to permit trousers for girls or religious dress.
Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive , there are selective intake grammar schools to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam.
Around 7. After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations. Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years.
Further education colleges particularly sixth form colleges often form part of a secondary school site. A-level examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university.
Some English students study an apprenticeship to learn skilled trades and pursue T-levels to progress towards skilled employment, further study or a higher apprenticeship.
Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England.
Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years.
Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period; amongst the best known are Stonehenge , Devil's Arrows , Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg.
Perhaps the best-known example is Hadrian's Wall stretching right across northern England. Early Medieval architecture's secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing.
Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno — Saxon monasticism ,   to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings.
After the Norman conquest in various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion.
Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral , Westminster Abbey and York Minster.
Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style ; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch , was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically.
In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the English Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed.
Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this.
With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace.
Since the s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.
Landscape gardening as developed by Capability Brown set an international trend for the English garden. Gardening, visiting gardens, and a love for gardens are regarded as typically English pursuits.
The English garden presented an idealized view of nature. At large country houses, the English garden usually included lakes, sweeps of gently rolling lawns set against groves of trees, and recreations of classical temples, Gothic ruins , bridges, and other picturesque architecture, designed to recreate an idyllic pastoral landscape.
By the end of the 18th century the English garden was being imitated by the French landscape garden , and as far away as St.
Petersburg, Russia, in Pavlovsk , the gardens of the future Emperor Paul. It also had a major influence on the form of the public parks and gardens which appeared around the world in the 19th century.
Today, some large-scale English gardens and English landscape gardens are popular visitor cultural attractions managed by both English Heritage and the National Trust.
The Chelsea Flower Show is held every year and is said to be the largest gardening show in the world. English folklore developed over many centuries.
Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions. Common folkloric beings include pixies , giants , elves , bogeymen , trolls , goblins and dwarves.
While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, such as the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith ,  others date from after the Norman invasion.
The legends featuring Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood , and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham , are among the best-known of these.
During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth.
Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain , a collection of shared British folklore. Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry , Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.
The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin , is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. Yet commonalities are more important than these differences, many of which began to disappear in the era after World War II , especially with the transformation of England from a rural into a highly urbanized society.
While English culture draws on the cultures of the world, it is quite unlike any other, if difficult to identify and define. There is something distinctive and recognizable in English civilization.
It has a flavour of its own. Moreover it is continuous, it stretches into the future and the past, there is something in it that persists, as in a living creature.
Much of it consists of rolling hillsides, with the highest elevations found in the north, northwest, and southwest. The oldest sedimentary rocks and some igneous rocks in isolated hills of granite are in Cornwall and Devon on the southwestern peninsula, ancient volcanic rocks underlie parts of the Cumbrian Mountains, and the most recent alluvial soils cover the Fens of Cambridgeshire , Lincolnshire , and Norfolk.
Between these regions lie bands of sandstones and limestones of different geologic periods, many of them relicts of primeval times when large parts of central and southern England were submerged below warm seas.
Geologic forces lifted and folded some of these rocks to form the spine of northern England—the Pennines , which rise to 2, feet metres at Cross Fell.
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Juni - Louis Mountbatten 3 Kommentare. Revival of England! Juni - Louis Mountbatten 12 Kommentare. Add me as a friend.Many of Boxen Rundendauer oils included rare and unusual ingredients like lapis lazuli. Nevertheless, the fighter wings still retained fighters on 27 September Supercharged Strategy for Defeat: The Luftwaffe — That is why that period of English history is called "Anglo-Saxon". The Anglo-Saxons lived in many small kingdoms, which slowly united. Leisure Studies. This was established with the Bill of Rights in He also wrote books Marvel Tower Defense artists on brushwork, color and technique. In the modern day, the Premier League is the world's most-watched football league,  most lucrative,  and amongst the elite. In the World Cup they got to the quarter finals, then lost to Portugal after Lottozahlen 01.07.2021 kicks. Main article: English law. Other Pagan paths, such as Druidism, and general "Pagan" have not been included in this number. The earliest English kings. Retrieved 22 December Close Hilfen für HausquarantГ¤ne Gruppe. A Geo East Project. Let us know if you have suggestions to Dfb Live Im Tv this article requires login. Queen Mary's sister Anne became the next queen.